In developed nations, cereal consumption is moderate and varied but still substantial. The nondetection of coliforms and Staphylococcus in the samples could be as a result of good manufacturing and hygiene practices observed during production. Osuntogun and Abaoba also reported that kununzaki is prone to microbial deterioration if not adequately stored. The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma is elevated in areas where hepatitis B virus infection is endemic Lewis et al. Likewise, in cows, ZEA has been linked to infertility, reduced milk roduction and hyperestrogenism Zinedine et al. It has immense social, economic,nutritional and medical benefits to numerous consumers, the sales and consumption of this locally made beverage is high due to the high cost of other non alcoholic drink. Malt caramel from the nuts of Cyperus esculentus.
In each market, ten 10 samples of kunnu were collected from ten different sellers. This is the first documented evidence of fusaric acid contamination of Nigerian rice. These effects are associated with decreases in food intake, inhibits ceramide synthesis and disruption ofsphingolipid metabolism Smith et al. Open in a separate window. Penicillum metabolites were more found in most of the samples, with Curvularin having the mean value of 0. In a related study, Makinde and Oyeleke reported increase in the ash contents of kunun zaki enriched with extract of sesame seeds over the control sample without the extract. It has been reported by many researchers fungi grow faster under warm conditions than under cool conditions.
Robert, Kunu is a popular cereal based, non-alcoholic beverage Adejuyitan et al. The difference could be attributed to the different types of cereals used in the production of the beverage in the different studies. Sterigmatocystin is an intermediary metabolite of the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway, being the penultimate precursor of aflatoxin B1. These aflatoxins are pentaheterocyclic and highly conjugated compounds.
Literature review on kunun zaki
The amount of crude protein found in grain is measured as the grain crude protein concentration. The relatively low levels of metabolite contamination reported in this survey may be due to the low moisture content of the rice grains brought for processing and the fact that the rice samples were collected directly from local processors who store them appropriately. Mycotoxins may also be carcinogenic, teratogenic, tremorogenic, haemorrhagic, and immune- toxic, oestrogenic, effects dermatitis and nephrogenic to a lot of organisms Burger et al.
Minerals are of great importance in diet as they play important roles in body metabolism.
rdview On the other hands, the storage fungi are those that develop on and within seeds at moisture contents often encountered in storage, principal species are Aspergillus and Penicillium Christensen, The tigenuts were washed and then boiled in 0. High temperature and lack of refrigeration facilities in most developing countries have led to the inability to produce and store fresh kunun zaki.
Although values seemed to decrease with increase in incorporation of TME, however the addition of the extract did not have any significant effect.
Table 2 Physical properties and vitamin contents of the kunun zaki samples. The micro flora of the finished product depends on the processing and storage conditions. Increase in protein content was noticed as percentage tigernut milk extract increased, suggesting that the tigernut revoew extract contributed to the protein contents of kunun zaki samples. The low values of microbial counts recorded in the kunun zaki samples could be due to heat treatment pasteurization given to the products during production.
Mycotoxins contaminate revuew range of agricultural commodities such as cereals and their derived processed products Njumbe et al.
It widely consumed for its thirst quenching properties most especially during the dry season Elmahmood and Doughari, Table 1 Proximate analysis of liherature kunun zaki samples. It is a staple beverage drink that is relatively cheap and nutritious when compared to carbonated drinks Adejuyitan et al. Analysis of mineral contents of the kunun zaki samples indicates that sample without TME recorded the lowest value This study was therefore undertaken to incorporate tigernut milk extract into the beverage for possible nutritional improvement.
The other part of the paste is then added to this mixture and it is stirred some more. Biotechnol The nutritional, microbiological and sensory characteristics of improved kunu – zaki produced from ash and moisture content of the improved kunu – zaki.
Literature review of kunu zaki
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which reviww use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Also cause, dry matter loss, mycotoxins production, nutrition and chemical changes and reduction in processing quality Meronuck, ; Sauer, Properties, Processing, and Nutritional Attributes.
Pure colonies were observed morphologically before being stored in sterile 2ml vial tubes containing 1ml of sterile water.
It can also be sweetened with honey together with small quantity of sweet potatoes, malted rice, malted sorghum and cadaba farinose crude extract.
(DOC) KENNYS ORIGINAL PROJECT 4 | kehinde ajoke –
Among the rreview toxins, beauvericin and sterigmatocystin were the most frequently occurring, while citrinin was detected only in one sample, at a lower value Though consumed throughout the year, it is extensively consumed during the dry season Adeyemi and Umar,Elmahood et al. Literatuge to this RSS feed. Dried stalks are used for cooking fuel, and dye can be extracted from the plant to color leather.
When processed the nutritional value of sorghum is comparable but not equal to maize cornso it requires supplementation of vitamin A.
A recent report by the FAO on mycotoxins shows over countries worldwide had set regulatory limits on allowable mycotoxins levels in human and animal feeds Warth, et al. Furthermore, a failure to properly clean equipment used to sample, process and package or transport the milled rice samples could have affected the contamination.