Click to view larger Figure 2. Target hardening leads to buildings becoming more antisocial and more private, with access becoming more controlled, more formal, and more restricted. Surveillance strategies are directed at facilitating observation. Crusty space Inaccessible due to walls, gates, and checkpoints. John Fortescue Aland; printed by W. In terms of the city centre and public housing areas there was little evidence of crime reduction and in four public transport studies, two found reductions, one found no effect and one found an increase in recorded crime. The investments to a neighborhood as a whole can at best contribute to an increase in residential satisfaction, including

Eds , Preventing Crime: Eds , Surveillance of Public Space: European Journal of Criminal Policy Research , 17 1 , 55— Additionally, individual components such as territoriality, surveillance, maintenance, access control, activity support and target-hardening are being widely deployed. Different types of land uses and activities are associated with varying levels of crime, and when many high-crime risk land uses are concentrated together, higher levels of crime can occur. Related items Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject. A Transatlantic Perspective, Routledge, London.

Part of a larger law enforcement initiative, the barriers were designed to make the drive to and purchase of drugs more difficult and to prevent drive-by shootings. Some aspects of CPTED interventions may facilitate crime or reduce quality of life in some other manner. Urban Affairs Quarterly16 3— After extracting the causes of insecurities and presenting literatuure sites, the spaces have been shown on the map GIS of the neighborhood.

However, neither of these studies used control groups as a baseline comparison against which to measure existing trends, or to include other independent factors that may be acting to reduce crime in the wider community.

CPTED Research Papers –

Where police evaluated a city regulation requiring two staff to be on duty, robberies declined immediately after the regulation was introduced Clifton, and for several years afterward Bellamy, Atlas notes how criminal gangs manipulate CPTED strategies, such as access control and surveillance, to obstruct law enforcement to actively benefit their criminal enterprises Atlas, Journal of Planning Literature30 4— The research hypothesis was that neighborhoods that exhibit comparatively more CPTED characteristics will have fewer instances literatuge crime than neighborhoods that exhibit fewer CPTED characteristics.


The study was conducted among the professionals and staffs of Kuala Lumpur City Hall as they are the real implementers who are also responsible to inform the community of the CPTED programs. In fact, beyond traditional criminal justice strategies to solve neighbourhood problems Scottp. These issues apply to the institutionalization cpter CPTED, whether in police departments, security businesses, local government offices, housing departments, academic institutions, or other professional organizations.

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED): A Review and Modern Bibliography

liherature Some CPTED interventions can reduce crime but at the expense of a significant reduction in quality of life for the community. Google Preview WorldCat U.

cpted literature review

Department of Defense, The police in these problem-solving initiatives demonstrated a willingness and capacity to modify the environment in which problems occurred as an effective means of modifying the behaviour of offenders and potential victims. However, it is impossible to isolate the impact of alley-gating per se, due to the multiple interventions undertaken.

The Dark Side of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)

Remember me on this computer. As it more particularly regards the English Constitution.

cpted literature review

A retrospective American study Lasley, in Literxture Angles reported on the installing of cptd on 14 streets with high levels of drug trafficking, shootings and homicides. Click here to sign up. However, researchers have also found that busier streets with some pedestrian movement have experienced reduced levels of recorded crime Hillier and Shu, litterature, b.


I observed six Beaumont neighborhoods, and their houses and other buildings were rated according to an audit list I developed, consisting of 12 quantifiable CPTED characteristics based on the four principles. The outcomes of a program or intervention contrast with, and are totally different from, the outputs of the program or intervention.

Sustainability and urban growth in developing countries pp. Using the concept of geographical juxtaposition is about assessing the potential influence of surrounding land uses on crime and the fear of crime.

The dark side of planning: The other side of defensible space. The way forward in designing out crime? It could be argued that gated communities can represent excessive use of a range of CPTED principles, not just target hardening.

An International Journal, Vol. Overall, a 5 per cent reduction in recorded crime was reported and half of ctped studies, all in the UK revealed a fall in recorded crime. A range of questions about designation, definition, and design include the following Crowe, Research implications will be the subject of a forthcoming paper.

These locations are now fortress-like, sterile, and barren literagure zones Hollander, It provides a sound basis for identifying missing or faulty data, erroneous assumptions, and flawed design and management planning; it also identifies where improvements are needed in criminological theory and CPTED principles.

Research supporting CPTED component parts Since CPTED is a complex strategy that will include a range of interventions and behavioural responses from various user groups, the research examined will be presented and analysed under six broad headings rview always mutually exclusiveFigure 1.